Insulin is secreted by the pancreas; this insulin hormone is naturally secreted on our body which is required for maintaining blood glucose level in our body. Diabetic persons are prescribed with insulin due to the insufficiency of their body to produce this insulin or lack of produce of insulin in the body. It is seen widely in type 1 diabetes patients. Immune response of our body requires T cells, when any infection occurs these T-cells helps in self defense mechanism. Those affected with type 2 diabetes are basically insulin resistant, in a recent study it was also found that those who are obese and have type 2 diabetes have problem of resistance to insulin hormone, also they have very weak immune system. They are easily prone to several other infectious diseases.
Recent research done by University Health network and General hospital Research on the relationship between immune system and insulin. The pathologist and doctors from that institute wants to know how T cells stop to respond insulin function. The research studies are carried out on genetically engineered mice, which have T- cells that lack in insulin receptors. In this research study also they had exposed the mice to H1N1 virus, the T cells generally gets signal when any germs enter the cell. Then they start functioning to fight against those infections, it is also found in a study that when the insulin receptor becomes not functioning proper, then the signal is not yet received to the cells and thereby the defense mechanism is failed when any microbes enter inside, thus immune system get’s affected and causing several diseases.
There is need to study in future on the immune response and also to find best effective vaccine to fight against several infectious diseases, especially arthritis like one. We all know that insulin has a specific role in metabolism, thus we can say it as metabolic hormone, and insulin is required to maintain glucose level in blood. In our human body the cells require glucose for metabolism; in fact glucose seems to be the food for these cells. When there is any slight changes in the blood glucose level or the insulin balance when get affected the cellular function is totally affected, when a diabetic patient has hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperosmolarity, ketoacidosis and dehydration then that will affect the homeostatic balance and further cause malfunction of vital organs and bone marrow. It is also noted that when insulin resistance is found along with metabolic syndrome, then there would be chronic inflammatory disorders may arise because of that health is affected and also stress on immune cells are high during that times which causes damage to the endothelium of vascular regions.
The research study also says that there is a direct link between stress and immune response. When acute stress is found then there will be boost in immune system action. When the stress system gets activated, then hypercortisolemia develops, in this condition cortical doesn’t respond to insulin, thus resistance to insulin hormone is found commonly, then hyperinsulinemia develops thus sugar patients have higher level of ROS concentration. Because of this oxidative stress is increased in body. Insulin hormone possesses the anti-inflammatory properties.
All our cells have insulins receptors, including immune cells. They have these insulins receptors for the intake of glucose to these cells. T cells are a specific type of white blood cells, that helps in destroy of bacteria and virus. Diet can be corrected and modified on them, you can try to include lots of dark chocolates in your diet these helps to increase the flavonoids level and that will helps to boost the immune system and enhance the immunity power. When we choose to eat an unhealthy choice of food that might lead to spike in blood sugar and thus leads to lower the immunity power. High calorie in diet may lead to gain in weight and thereby leading to weaken the immune system.
In conclusion we can say that the insulin signalling pathways when they get activated, thereby causing rapid division of cells and also secrete cytokines, they helps in boosting the immune system and activate the immune response. Diabetic patient are easily prone to infections, sickness and illness. Chronic illness is found on the diabetics, when the white blood cells are lessened in action to work, then deadly infectious diseases arises in our human body.
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