WHAT IS NIPAH VIRUS INFECTION? ITS CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

Nipah virus infection is the new emerging public health concern; it is a Paramyxovirus whose genus is Henipavirus. In short it is called as NiV virus. Initially this infection is found in 1999 on fig farmers and pig eaters in Malaysia, then in Singapore. Slighter disease in pigs occurred that time and then 300 human beings are affected by this severe infection, among 300, hundred persons had lost their lives. After that this infection again occurred in Bangladesh by 2001. Then this nipah viral infection finally comes back to Indian place named Siliguri.

This nipah virus gets transmitted to humans by infected pigs, infected bats and previously infected people with NiV. Those who are working close contact with pigs like pig farmers and pig eaters are highly affected by this nipah virus, this condition is seen higher in Malaysia and Singapore countries. Now again in India this nipah virus spreads in Kerala.

 Causes of NiV or Nipah Virus

  • Those who work close to pigs
  • Pig consuming people
  • Bat bitten fruits when consumed
  • Already infected person of NiV when get in contact with other person.

Symptoms of Nipah viral infection

  • Fever
  • Muscle pain
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Photophobia
  • Neck rigidity
  • Trouble in breathing
  • Inflammation of brain
  • Drowsiness
  • Mental confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Lack of consciousness
  • Finally coma occurs in one week period of infection.

Diagnosis

  • Histopathology
  • Serological tests
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)
  • Electron microscopy
  • Viral isolation.

NIPAH VIRUS

Treatment

Currently there is no proper treatment found in healing this infection, but a powerful vaccine is being developed,  vaccine named Canary pox vectored Nipah F and G is highly effective in treating against this viral infection on pigs, also it has some good potential curing effects on human being.

Prevention methods

  • Avoid drinking the date palm sap directly, since fruit bats like it very much and those date palm saps are highly infected with this nipah virus.
  • Partially eaten fruits by fruit bats when taken by animals or humans, that can cause severe viral infection, so avoid consuming partially consumed fruits at any cost.
  • Climbing trees must be avoided since these bats found on trees leave their salivary secretion or excretion on trees, which can be causative agent of NiV.
  • Avoid close contact with the infected person of nipah virus.
  • Personal hygiene is must.
  • Hand washing practices that too intensively are recommended.
  • Raw fruit consuming can be avoided.
  • Cook the food well, clean it and prefer to take home foods.
  • Try to use N95 mask in public areas. This helps in avoiding transmission of nipah virus.
  • If you have any of the symptoms mentioned in nipah virus infection, then immediately consult doctor and get earlier treatment and avoid the severity of the condition.
  • This is mango season, so better avoid taking it or avoid consuming partly consumed fruits.
  • The food items prepared in home must be well covered to avoid the spread of infectious nipah virus.
  • Consume vegetables and fruits after proper washing.
  • The affected person with NiV or nipah virus should be isolated immediately and the washrooms must not be used commonly, since the affected person’s urine or in excretion the nipah virus can get transmitted.
  • If you see the person infected with this nipah virus, then don’t share food with him, bed must be used separately and if he sneezes or coughs then the nipah virus can get transmitted easily and enters our respiratory tract, so stay avoid from those possibilities.

The mortality rate of this viral infection is 33 % to 92 %. This deadly infectious disease is more common among south east- Asian region. The death rate rises during 2008 to 2012 periods. Medical campaigns can be conducted to aware public about the disease occurrence, so they can be educated well about this condition. This infection is seen higher on spring season and winter season, the reason for it is the breading season for bats seen higher on this time. Also their salivary and excretory secretions get shedded on fruits and the chance of getting infection is doubled at this times.  The date palm sap will be harvested at this season so that is also another possible cause for the chances of occurrence of this NiV on human beings, this condition occurs in both humans and in animals.

The disease now gets wide spread in north Kerala region of India, where 11 people are died due to this viral infection. So kindly stay away from the affected persons and also avoid fruits that are fallen from trees directly, that have chances of nipah virus in it at higher rate. Prevention is always better than cure, now we all must follow this preventive measures and stay away from this viral infection. This condition can be highly fatal, so to save our precious life, we must follow those protecting measures.  Don’t ignore this information; it is compulsorily to be followed in order to avoid deaths.

I hope the above furnished information will definitely be useful to everyone who goes through it. Thanks for taking time to read out my article, after reading out please share it among your groups in social media, since sharing is like caring.

“Health is not valued Till Sickness Comes; so it’s Time to Take Care of Our Health and Stay Protected”

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Dt. Ramya Sri

Chief Nutrition & Fitness Consultant- Expertise in Nutrition, Fitness, Healthcare sector. Ramya has spirit, dedication in work, passion for Fitness and sales, love fitness and nutrition profile, skillful, multitasking with 10 years of proven skills in Fitness and nutrition field.

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